In hypogeal germination, cotyledons remain inside the seed shell, beneath the ground and non-photosynthetic, while in epigeal germination, the cotyledons expand to split the seed coat, allowing the sprout to push them above the ground where they become photosynthetic, according to Reference.com. Epigeal germination allows the young plants to begin providing food quickly as the cotyledons have little food stored to provide for their needs.
Epigeal germination has both advantages and disadvantages. It allows plants to produce smaller seeds than those that sprout underground. However, pushing the cotyledon above ground makes the young plant more susceptible to frost and the grazing of animals. These plants generally overcome these barriers by producing a large number of seeds to give plant reproduction a statistical advantage. Their germination process requires external nutrients, so they prefer nutrient-rich soil. They do best in areas where there is adequate sunshine for photosynthesis to take place. Germinating above ground increases the plant success rate, making it particularly adaptable to areas where it is important to establish the plant quickly, such as the river borders of the Amazon, where flooding is a problem. However, once the initial first phase ends, the plant develops more slowly than a plant that uses hypogeal germination.
Hypogeal plants require less sunlight to germinate and are more suited for areas such as forest interiors where sunlight is limited. While slower to establish themselves, these plants grow faster than epigeal plants once they germinate.Learn More
Germination is the process of plant growth from a seed or spore. Kidney beans usually germinate within a week of planting, provided that they are kept moist.Full Answer >
Temperature affects the percentage of seeds that germinate and the rate of germination. Seeds kept at higher temperatures are more likely to deteriorate and not germinate. Once seeds start to germinate, higher temperatures stimulate faster germination up to an optimal temperature, after which the speed of germination declines.Full Answer >
Germination takes place in three steps or stages and takes the young seed from a dormant state to the very beginning stage of growing as a seedling. Germination takes place in plants, flowers and trees: this process is to members of the plant family what metamorphosis is to insects such as moths and butterflies. The process requires several critical ingredients to begin, including water, sunlight and nutrients.Full Answer >
The seed germination process is a complex process in which the embryonic plant created by sexual reproduction of plants propagates the species by forming a new, independent plant. In order to germinate, the moisture and temperatures must be right. New plants live a short while on the sugars stored in the seed, requiring the plant to start gathering nutrients and moisture from the soil and producing its own food quickly.Full Answer >