In hypogeal germination, cotyledons remain inside the seed shell, beneath the ground and non-photosynthetic, while in epigeal germination, the cotyledons expand to split the seed coat, allowing the sprout to push them above the ground where they become photosynthetic, according to Reference.com. Epigeal germination allows the young plants to begin providing food quickly as the cotyledons have little food stored to provide for their needs.Know More
Epigeal germination has both advantages and disadvantages. It allows plants to produce smaller seeds than those that sprout underground. However, pushing the cotyledon above ground makes the young plant more susceptible to frost and the grazing of animals. These plants generally overcome these barriers by producing a large number of seeds to give plant reproduction a statistical advantage. Their germination process requires external nutrients, so they prefer nutrient-rich soil. They do best in areas where there is adequate sunshine for photosynthesis to take place. Germinating above ground increases the plant success rate, making it particularly adaptable to areas where it is important to establish the plant quickly, such as the river borders of the Amazon, where flooding is a problem. However, once the initial first phase ends, the plant develops more slowly than a plant that uses hypogeal germination.
Hypogeal plants require less sunlight to germinate and are more suited for areas such as forest interiors where sunlight is limited. While slower to establish themselves, these plants grow faster than epigeal plants once they germinate.Learn more about Botany
Seed germination begins when the first root breaks through the seed wall and ends when the first pair of true leaves begin the process of photosynthesis. The three stages in-between are when the primary root, which is called the radicle, develops root hairs, the first young shoot rises emerges from the soil and the first pair of true leaves form to begin to manufacture food for the plant.Full Answer >
High concentrations of salt in soil generally reduce the rate of seed germination. Increased salt levels prevent essential water from seeping into the seed. The lack of moisture retards its growth and development, which may cause the seed to wilt and eventually die.Full Answer >
Germination is the process of plant growth from a seed or spore. Kidney beans usually germinate within a week of planting, provided that they are kept moist.Full Answer >
Temperature affects the percentage of seeds that germinate and the rate of germination. Seeds kept at higher temperatures are more likely to deteriorate and not germinate. Once seeds start to germinate, higher temperatures stimulate faster germination up to an optimal temperature, after which the speed of germination declines.Full Answer >