Ethical issues for recombinant DNA address concerns that organisms and food containing recombinant DNA are potentially dangerous. Most scientists consider recombinant DNA technology to be safe, while various advocacy and health groups claim that regulatory groups are biased and more research is needed to assess possible dangers.Know More
After the first publications describing successful use of recombinant DNA technology in 1972 and 1973, the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA convened in 1975 to discuss guidelines concerning its use. It came up with detailed recommendations and a moratorium on potentially dangerous experimentation. Later, the National Institutes of Health issued more formal guidelines. Government regulations are based on the NIH guidelines.
The Union of Concerned Scientists, the Organic Consumers Association, the World Wildlife Fund and Greenpeace question the ethics of liberal use of recombinant DNA technology. The main objections to its use center around its long-term consequences when used in the modification of food. Considerations include the possibility of contamination of genetically unmodified food, mandatory labeling to identify products with genetically modified organisms, the efficacy of government regulations, long-term effects on the environment and health and sufficient oversight on companies that deal with recombinant DNA technology or products.
In the United States, critics question the objectivity of regulatory agencies overly sympathetic to corporations selling products that contain recombinant DNA. Critics also object to a double standard in the European Union between cultivation of food for use within the EU and for export.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Both DNA and RNA are macromolecules that consist of long chains of nucleotides. Both contain the specific nucleotide bases adenine, guanine and cytosine, although the fourth base differs between DNA and RNA. Both molecules are found in the cell's nucleus, but RNA may also be found in the cytoplasm.Full Answer >
DNA tests are usually 99.99 percent accurate, which means they can be wrong 0.01 percent of the time. While those odds appear good, they are the accuracy rate under ideal scenarios where the integrity of samples is not a concern.Full Answer >
The organisms that are most closely related are those with the most recent common ancestor, in terms of the number of generations that have passed since that ancestor. For instance, two siblings are more closely related than two cousins. Relationships between species follow a similar pattern.Full Answer >
Biomolecules are any type of organic molecules, such as macromolecules or DNA, found or produced by living organisms. There are four main categories of biomolecules in living organisms: carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids/proteins and nucleotidesFull Answer >