One example of commensalism is the relationship between Patiria miniata, known as the Bat star, and a segmented worm called Ophiodromus pugettensis. The star has several grooves protruding from its mouth. Some Ophiodromus pugettensis worms live inside these grooves, but they do not harm the starfish.Know More
Commensalism is defined as a type of symbiosis that gives one organism an advantage without helping or hurting the other organism. In the case of the Bat star and the worms, the grooves in the starfish provide a safe place for the worms to reside. Because the starfish does not derive any benefit from the worms living there, the relationship is commensalistic rather than mutualistic.
Humans also participate in commensalistic relationships. For example, the Demodex folliculorum mite makes its home in human hair follicles, while Demodex brevis lives in oil-secreting glands on the skin. Another example of commensalism in humans is the presence of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria in the digestive tract. The bacteria do not harm the digestive tract but they do not have any helpful functions. This commensalistic relationship can quickly turn parasitic if the bacteria migrate from the digestive tract to other parts of the body. If Streptococcus pyogenes moves into the throat, it causes strep throat.Learn more about Biology
An example of mutualism in the desert is the relationship between the desert mistletoe plant and the Phainopepla bird. As the bird eats the berries produced by the desert mistletoe, it passes undigested seeds. This ensures the survival of the desert mistletoe.Full Answer >
The relationship between the arctic fox and polar bears and that between pitcher plant midges and mosquitoes are examples of commensalism in the tundra biome. Commensal interactions provide an advantage to an individual of one species without either benefit or damage to its benefactor.Full Answer >
Facultative mutualism refers to a biological relationship in which both organisms benefit from the association, but the relationship is not essential. If the organisms must live mutually, then instead of being facultative mutualism, it is called obligate mutualism.Full Answer >
The relationship between a flea and a mouse is classified as parasitism. Of all mammals, rodents are the most heavily parasitized by fleas, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Flea larvae develop easily in the nests that rodents, such as mice, build inside holes.Full Answer >