Bactericidal agents, such as the aminoglycosides, kill their target organisms and are thus distinguished from bacteriostatic agents, which only inhibit or delay the reproduction of bacteria, according to Michigan State University. As these agents approach their target infections differently, their effectiveness can vary considerably from one case to another.
Depending on their effects and relative safety, bactericides half multiple uses including being used as antibiotics, disinfectants or antiseptics. Antibiotic-class bactericides are a diverse group that includes penicillin, cephalosporins and the fluoroquinolone family. Bactericidal antiseptics are not strictly medicines in the way antibiotics are, but they can be used in contact with the human body. Some antiseptics that reliably kill bacteria are ethyl alcohol, peroxide and organic acids such as sorbic acid and lactic acid. Disinfectants are not intended for use in contact with human bodies, and so their effect on organic tissue is of less concern. Some of the most commonly used bactericidal disinfectants include bleach and active oxygen compounds, such as potassium persulfate and urea perhydrate.
Also in common use are phenol, also known as carbolic acid, and strong alkalis such as sodium, potassium and calcium hydroxide. Alkali-based bactericides are especially effective at temperatures greater than 60 degrees Celsius.Learn More
Adding salt to boiling water increases the water's boiling point temperature. Adding any nonvolatile solvent, including salt, to a pure solvent increases its boiling temperature in a process scientists call boiling-point elevation. However, the elevation in this case is hardly noticeable, as it takes almost 4 tablespoons of salt to increase the boiling point of 1 quart of water by 1 degree.Full Answer >
At room temperature and normal atmospheric temperature, chlorine is a yellow-green gas that has a density heavier than air. Lowering the temperature to minus 29 degrees Fahrenheit or increasing the pressure converts it to a yellow liquid. Chlorine is highly reactive and does not exist as a pure compound in nature.Full Answer >
A basic solution is a liquid mixture that has a pH level greater than 7, which typically means there are a greater number of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions. Basic solutions are typically formed by mixing a base, like sodium hydroxide and water.Full Answer >
To make a saturated solution of sodium chloride, find the solubility of sodium chloride in water, mix a solution of sodium chloride and water, and watch for saturation. The solubility of sodium chloride is 357 grams per 1 liter of cold water. The solubility of sodium chloride will change based on the temperature of the water. To make the saturated solution, add 357 grams of sodium chloride to 1 liter of water, and mix thoroughly. The final solution is saturated.Full Answer >