Two common examples of mutualism in the tundra biome include the beneficial coexistence between the alga and the fungus in a lichen and the reciprocal partnership between tundra swans and sago pondweed. Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship wherein two or several different species derive shared benefits by living in close proximity with one another.Know More
A biome is a geographical and ecological division of the Earth, which is characterized by a unique flora and fauna that thrive under certain climatic and environmental conditions. The tundra biome is defined as a region comprising a low variety of plants and animals, limited food sources, minimal precipitation, brief growing period and exceedingly cold temperatures.
Due to competition and the scant availability of nutrients, organisms form relationships with other organisms to ensure continued survival. One of the most abundant organisms in the tundra biome are lichens. A lichen consists of a fungal component called a "mycobiont," which forms a mutualistic relationship with the algal component known as a "photobiont." The fungus protects the alga from becoming dehydrated by constantly supplying it with water, while the alga synthesizes food for the fungus. Another mutually beneficial partnership in the tundra is between tundra swans and sago pondweed, where the swans utilize the pondweed as a source of sustenance during the birds' seasonal movement, in exchange for seed dispersal.Learn more about Biology
There are several biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors that are present in the arctic tundra, including moss, polar bears, frozen soil and wind. Biotic factors also include plants and animals such as grass, lichen, caribou, fish, and various bird species. Other abiotic factors include low temperatures, short growth seasons, limited drainage and low light.Full Answer >
The relationship between the arctic fox and polar bears and that between pitcher plant midges and mosquitoes are examples of commensalism in the tundra biome. Commensal interactions provide an advantage to an individual of one species without either benefit or damage to its benefactor.Full Answer >
One of the most familiar examples of mutualism is a bee and a plant. A bee lands on flowers to gather nectar, and, through this process, the bee and the plant both benefit.Full Answer >
An example of mutualism in the desert is the relationship between the desert mistletoe plant and the Phainopepla bird. As the bird eats the berries produced by the desert mistletoe, it passes undigested seeds. This ensures the survival of the desert mistletoe.Full Answer >