Examples of solvents include water, acetone, turpentine and ethanol and examples of solutes include salt, sugar, iodine and copper sulfate. A solvent must have the same polarity as the solute. An important phrase in chemistry is "like dissolves like."Know More
"Like dissolves like" refers to the fact that polar solutes will dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes will only dissolve in non-polar solvents. Polar solutes cannot dissolve in non-polar solvents. Water is a polar solvent, salt and sugar are both polar solutes. To dissolve iodine, which is non-polar, a solvent such as ethyl acetate would be needed and it would not dissolve into water.
The polarity of each solvent or solute substance depends on the covalent bonds it has between atoms. When two non-metal atoms bond, two electrons are shared between each of them. In covalent bonds, the electrons shared by each of the atoms are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms. The two forms of covalent bonding are polar and non-polar. Non-polar bonds are formed with an equal sharing of electrons between atoms. Polar bonds are formed when the sharing of electrons are uneven. Ionic bonds happen when there is a complete transfer of electrons between atoms. These ionic solutes can dissolve in both polar solvents and ionic solvents.Learn more in Solutions & Mixtures
Salt is naturally found in the environment, and thus it was never invented. It is composed of nitrogen and chlorine, both of which are so volatile that they combine to form a new compound.Full Answer >
When salt stays in contact with ice, it drops the water's freezing point, which allows the ice to melt at a faster rate and prevents the water from refreezing. Salt is frequently used during winter to reduce and prevent ice formation on walkways and roads.Full Answer >
Salt, as well as any other soluble substance, dissolves quicker in hot water because heat makes the water molecules move faster, creating more space between them. This extra space means the salt molecules more readily make contact with the water molecules, binding to them and creating a solution.Full Answer >
Adding salt to water increases the boiling point of water due to a fundamental colligative property of matter known as boiling point elevation. Whenever a solute, such as salt, is added to a solvent, such as water, the boiling point becomes higher than that of the pure solvent. This phenomenon occurs for all solute-solvent systems, regardless of interactions between the solute and solvent molecules.Full Answer >