There are several ways of separating nitrogen and oxygen. The first involves cooling the mixture down to -200 degrees Celsius and separating the gases using a process called fractional distillation. Alternatively, the gases can be cooled down to -182.95 C, the liquefaction point of oxygen. At this temperature, the oxygen in the mixture gets liquefied, while the nitrogen remains in its gaseous form, because nitrogen liquefies at -196 C.
Errors in the chemistry lab can arise from human error, equipment limitations and observation errors. Some other sources of errors include measurement values that are not well defined and inconsistent experiment techniques.
The function of a test tube brush is the clean test tubes used in a science laboratory. Test tube brushes are also useful in cleaning aquarium tanks. They consist of twisted wire handles connected to bristles that are made of Nylon or a similar material such as Tynex.
A glass stirring rod is a common piece of lab equipment used to mix or stir liquids and chemicals. These rods are thicker than a typical drinking straw, have rounded ends and are made from a special type of laboratory glassware called borosilicate. This glass is less affected by thermal stress and has a very low thermal expansion point, so it is less affected by heat than metals are.
The function of a test tube is to hold, mix or heat small quantities of liquid or solid chemicals for assays and qualitative experiments. Test tubes also serve as temporary storage for chemicals to be used in chemical experiments.
A laboratory thermometer is a tool used in laboratories to measure temperature with a high level of accuracy. It can be partially or fully immersed in the substance being measured. A laboratory thermometer is recognizable by its long stem with a silver bulb at the end.
Test tube racks are commonly used in laboratories to keep test tubes upright so that the equipment does not roll away, spill or become accidentally cracked. Test tubes are delicate equipment, usually made of glass.
Laboratory observations, as used in the social sciences, bring study subjects into a laboratory setting to complete research. While the laboratory observation gives greater control over the subjects, it has the potential of introducing variables that do not exist in the real world. Laboratory observations allow researchers to gather data more efficiently than they are able to do in the natural environment.
A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of different materials or substances. It can be used for solids, liquids or even gases.
Centrifugation is a process that separates solids from liquids and liquids of different densities from each other by using centrifugal force. Centrifugation is carried out inside a centrifuge.
A light microscope uses a focused beam of visible light to magnify objects for observation. It works in a similar way as a refracting telescope but with several minor differences. A telescope uses a large objective lens, because it needs large amounts of light to bring a dim, distant object to a bright focus. On the other hand, a light microscope does not need a large objective lens because it only needs to acquire light from a small area of a thin, close specimen that is well illuminated.
By American standards, fake gold is anything less than 10 karats. If you're wondering if your gold is real, the most reliable way to find out is to take it to a certified jeweler and have it tested. If you want to check for yourself, use these instructions to make that determination.
A Petri dish is a shallow dish that is used to culture microorganisms. By mixing different ingredients, such as blood, salts, amino acids or bacteria, together with an agar (or medium), scientists are able to observe reactions and watch microorganisms grow and develop.
The purpose of a beaker is to hold various types of liquids. A beaker often has a wide bottom and a narrow top. Beakers are typically used in laboratories and schools so that scientists and students are able to work with chemicals safely and easily.
pH paper, also called litmus paper, is filter paper that is treated with natural water soluble dye from lichens. pH paper is used as an indicator to test the acidity of water-based liquids.
A laboratory spatula is used for mixing, spreading and holding chemicals in a laboratory. In most cases, spatulas are made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion and provide clean mixing. However, certain spatula implements are made using rubber and polymers such as nylon.
Salt lowers the freezing point of water. The freezing point of water is the temperature at which water transitions from liquid to solid phase. The freezing point of water is 0 degrees centigrade in ordinary conditions. However, if supercooling occurs or if the water contains impurities, the freezing point can go down.
A test tube holder's purpose is for holding test tubes in place, but they can also be useful for holding pipettes and stirring rods as well, and a test tube rack holds multiple test tubes in place. Some test tube racks can hold up to 40 test tubes. There are other racks designed for storing test tubes and holding even larger numbers of test tubes during a long period of time.
Crucible tongs are tools that can be used in either a laboratory setting or an industrial setting. In both cases, the tongs are used to safely move a piece of equipment called a crucible that contains potentially dangerous materials that must be handled very carefully.
A diaphragm on a microscope is the piece that enables the user to adjust the amount of light that is focused under the specimen being observed. A diaphragm is typically found on higher-power microscopes versus less expensive or toy models.
An investigatory project is a project that tries to find the answer to a question by using the scientific method. According to About.com, science-fair projects are usually investigatory projects.