The temperature, the polarity of the solutes and solvent, the pressure, and the molecular size affect solubility. All of these factors play roles in determining which solutes dissolve in which solvents.
Temperature affects solubility by changing the properties of the solvent. As a general rule, as the temperature rises, the solubility rises. Polarity affects solubility because polar solvents dissolve polar solutes, and nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes. Pressure only affects solubility for gases; the solubility of a gas is proportional to the pressure of the gas solvent. Molecular size affects solubility because larger molecules are more difficult to dissolve in solvents. Generally, smaller molecules dissolve more easily and are more soluble.Learn More
Temperature does affect the saturation point; at higher temperatures more solute can be dissolved in a solution than would be possible at lower temperatures. A good example of this is the fact that warmer air can hold more moisture than cooler air.Full Answer >
Temperature, pressure and substance composition can impact the solubility of a substance. Reactions between solutes and solvents can decrease the solubility of a substance as well.Full Answer >
Examples of solvents include water, acetone, turpentine and ethanol and examples of solutes include salt, sugar, iodine and copper sulfate. A solvent must have the same polarity as the solute. An important phrase in chemistry is "like dissolves like."Full Answer >
A nonpolar solute is a substance that has no dipole elements and is dissolved in a solution. Many of these solutes are organic chemicals dissolved in organic liquids. Solutions follow the rule of like dissolves like, so nonpolar solutes are difficult to dissolve in polar solvents, such as water.Full Answer >