Some of the most famous biologists and their contributions to science are Charles Darwin for the theory of evolution by natural selection, Gregor Mendel for discovering the foundation of modern genetics, and James Watson and Francis Crick for the determining the structure of DNA.Know More
In "On the Origin of Species," Charles Darwin introduced the concept that populations of organisms evolve through the process of natural selection. Darwin posited that nature may select certain traits in the same way that humans breed plants and animals for particular qualities. Over time, populations evolve as nature selects for traits that promote increased survival and reproduction. Today, scientists consider this theory a cornerstone of modern biology.
Gregor Mendel bred pea plants to investigate how parents transmitted traits to offspring. Through these experiments, he formulated the Law of Segregation, which states that dominant and recessive traits are passed on to offspring randomly. Mendel also developed the Law of Independent Assortment, establishing that traits are passed from parent to offspring independently of one another. His findings formed the foundation of the modern understanding of genetics.
James Watson and Francis Crick worked together to determine that DNA has a structure made of a double helix. Many scientists regard this finding one of the most important of the 20th century, as it led to the ability to sequence genes, which is vital to biotechnology and modern medicine.Learn more about Biology
Francis Crick used the drug LSD during his career as a geneticist. He has stated that he was under the influence of LSD when he first discovered the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953. Crick is considered the father of modern genetics.Full Answer >
The theory of evolution is supported by biochemical evidence; many of the same molecules and biochemical processes occur within all living organisms, from single-cell bacteria to humans. Originally, scientists couldn't understand how the process of evolution began, but they later discovered that RNA possesses catalytic properties.Full Answer >
Vestigial structures support the theory of evolution by adding observable evidence to the model of common ancestry. Vestigial structures are not necessarily without function. In fact, according to Austin Cline at About.com, it isn't possible to demonstrate that any anatomical feature serves no purpose. Instead, a vestigial structure is one that shows clear homology with a similar feature in related organisms but whose purpose is no longer clear.Full Answer >
The theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin entails the evolution by natural selection of all life on earth. It states that new generations are born with different inheritable traits, and that the traits that are superior for survival will be passed on to new generations. This means that given enough time, an organism can change and evolve to create a new species.Full Answer >