Q:

What is a fissure eruption?

A:

A fissure eruption is a volcanic eruption that occurs in cracks, or fissures, along the sides of the volcano. These eruptions differ from the typical centralized eruption that emerges from the mouth of a crater.

Fissures develop in volcanoes over time based on shifting in the earth's crust and the cumulative effective of lava and steam boiling on the inside. A fissure eruption occurs when the gases, lava and rock fragments inside the crater spill out through the cracks. The result is similar to gushing water that flows out of a crack in a toilet tank or a pitcher of water.

While fissure eruptions take place in many volcanoes throughout the world, they occur especially often in the volcanoes of Iceland and Hawaii. The San Diego State University geology website notes that 1783 fissure eruption in Iceland, called the Laki flow, caused the most expansive recorded lava flow.

In contrast to explosive eruptions, fissure eruptions do not produce much of an ejection through the top of the crater. The pressure pushes the lava and gases out of the cracks instead. Some fissure eruptions have rings of fire that form around the outside as the hot lava and gases pass through rocky mountain terrain.

Sources:

  1. geology.sdsu.edu

Is this answer helpful?

Similar Questions

  • Q:

    What is a fissure volcano?

    A:

    A fissure volcano, or fissure vent eruption, occurs when lava erupts through an elongated break in the rock at the surface of the earth. Fissure vent eruptions are common in the mid-ocean ranges. Also known as shield volcanoes, they produce pillow basalt formations such as those that make up the Hawaiian Islands.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What is a dome volcano?

    A:

    A dome volcano, or a lava dome, occurs when a dome forms over the vent of a volcano because the eruption is too slow. Once the lava cools down, it forms a dome. The domes are typically fairly steep and filled with silica-rich lava, which is prone to explosions.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What happened during the Montserrat volcano eruption?

    A:

    According to a BBHS case study time line of the eruption, the first earthquakes began to occur in Montserrat in 1992. The volcano erupted in 1995 after being dormant for 500 years. The volcano continued to erupt into 1996 more violently causing increased damage. Finally, in 1997 large eruptions collapsed the dome causing pyroclastic flows, also known as lava flows, which damaged much of the island.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What do you call hot lava cooling?

    A:

    When magma rises up to the surface of the Earth from a volcanic eruption or through vents, it turns into lava. When this lava stops flowing and cools, it hardens into what is known as igneous rock.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:

Explore