Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, before being pushed by a series of involuntary muscle contractions through the esophagus, then the stomach, and then the small and large intestines. The digestive system is essentially a series of long, hollow organs lined with muscles that contract in a rhythmic pattern, known as peristalsis, to keep food moving in the correct direction.Know More
The mouth is considered the first part of the digestive system because food is physically broken down there by chewing. Saliva also mixes with the food, starting the chemical digestion process that breaks larger molecules into small ones that the body can absorb. Once food is chewed and mixed with saliva, the tongue pushes food into the esophagus. This is the only voluntary muscle contraction in the digestive process. After swallowing, involuntary muscles begin pushing the food through the esophagus into the stomach. In the stomach, churning muscular contractions mix the food with digestive juices.
Once the food is combined with digestive juices in the stomach, it must be passed on to the small intestine. This occurs when the pyloric sphincter, a ring of muscle at the bottom of the stomach, relaxes and lets the food flow through. The partially digested food, now referred to as chyme, is then pushed through the small intestine by rhythmic, wave-like muscular contractions of the involuntary smooth muscle in the intestinal walls. After passing through the small intestine, the remaining food material is passed through the large intestine via the same process before being pushed out of the anus during a bowel movement.Learn More
Squamous epithelial cells, most commonly known as cheek cells, secrete a continuous supply of mucin, the main element in mucus, according to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Charged with maintaining moisture in the mouth, these cells divide every 24 hours and are constantly shed throughout the process. This moisture content is necessary in the mouth to aid enzymes in breaking down food, assist in swallowing and begin digestion.Full Answer >
The skeletal system consists of 206 bones and their associated tissues, including the cartilage, ligaments, tendons and joints. Its functions are supporting the body and protecting the vital organs. It also serves as anchorage for the action of muscles.Full Answer >
When you swallow, a piece of cartilage called the epiglottis closes off the trachea, or windpipe, to prevent food from obstructing your airway, according to About.com. The epiglottis flap normally rests in a slightly upright position above the larynx, or voice box. The epiglottis temporarily folds over the larynx opening as food or beverages enter the throat, protecting the trachea and lungs, MedlinePlus states.Full Answer >
The summary equation for aerobic respiration is C6H12O6 + 6O2 to 6CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 or 38 ATP while the summary equation for anaerobic respiration is C6H12O6 to 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 2 ATP. In the equations, C6H12O6 is a type of glucose, O2 is oxygen, CO2 is carbon dioxide and 2C2H5OH is lactic acid.Full Answer >