The function of bacterial endospores, according to Cornell University, is to allow the survival of bacteria's cell lines through harsh conditions that would kill a normal member of the species. These conditions include starvation, ultraviolet light, dessication and chemical damage. The endospore is an unusually small and largely dehydrated bacterium with a germ cell wall, surrounded by further walls of protein and peptidoglycan that protect it.
The process of creating an endospore involves a unique kind of cell division. The mother cell replicates its DNA and undergoes cytokinesis, but one of the daughter cells is much smaller than the other. The larger daughter cell then envelops the smaller daughter cell, which becomes a forespore within the larger cell. The larger cell forms the walls of peptidoglycan and protein around the smaller cell, then lyses, leaving only the endospore behind to weather whatever hostile conditions prompted its creation.
Once more favorable conditions begin, the endospore transforms its peptidoglycan shell into a regular cell wall and takes in water to become a normal member of its species. While most species of bacteria that form endospores do so in response to unusual environmental conditions, others form endospores regularly, even on a daily basis, due to day and night conditions or other regular occurrences in their environments.Learn More
Bacillus often show resistance to harsh environments such as heat, radiation, disinfectants and drying due to their endospores. According to MicrobiologyBytes, spores of Bacillus have a tough outer covering made of keratin, making them highly resistant to heat and chemicals.Full Answer >
Wolves have several key adaptations to help them survive: they have strong hind limbs, feet with five specialized toes and sturdy teeth to facilitate survival in harsh conditions. Wolves have key physical characteristics to help catch and consume prey. They may also last up to two weeks without feeding, during which time their metabolisms slow to a crawl.Full Answer >
Archaebacteria, more properly called archaea, are single celled organisms that live in a wide range of habitats, including the harsh conditions of hot springs. Thermophiles are arachea which grow best at temperatures above 45 Celsius, but some species thrive in much warmer temperatures. According to Reference.com, "Methanopyrus kandleri Strain 116 grows at 122 °C, which is the highest recorded temperature at which any organism will grow."Full Answer >
A bacterial colony consists of multiple microorganisms that are all from one mother cell, and they gather together and are genetically identical. This type of colony generally occurs as a result of the bacteria getting stronger defensively or mutating to survive antibiotics.Full Answer >