The glycocalyx serves a variety of functions, from allowing bacteria to adhere to objects to keeping the cornea moist. Glycocalyx is the general name for a gel-like coating that covers the outside of certain cells. The coating is made up of carbohydrates and fibrous proteins.Know More
All bacteria have a glycocalyx, but glycocalyx coatings are also found in certain animal cells. In some bacteria, the glycocalyx may form a tightly bound outer covering called the capsule. The capsule protects the bacterial cell from being consumed by other cells because it covers up molecules used to grab the bacteria and pull it inside an attacking cell. The capsule also makes the bacterial cell sticky, so it can adhere to objects and to other cells. This helps the bacteria form colonies and resist being flushed away by currents.
Animal cells, unlike bacterial cells, do not always have a glycocalyx. In humans, cells with notable glycocalyx coatings are found in certain tissues doing various kinds of work. Within the eye, glycocalyx proteins near the cornea draw water in and keep the cornea moist. This protects the cornea from infection and from exposure to air.
The inner lining of human blood vessels also contains glycocalyx-producing cells. Here, the glycocalyx serves as an interface between blood and blood vessel, regulating the passage of hormones and nutrients to and from organs. It also modulates the number of red blood cells passing through capillaries. Finally, throughout the body, the glycocalyx is used to identify cells as the body's own and to facilitate communication between cells in the same tissue.Learn more about Biology
In the human body, carbohydrates play a variety of important roles, including providing energy, regulating glucose levels in blood and sparing protein use for body fuel. The body's cells, tissues and muscles require carbohydrates for their proper functioning. The brain and central nervous system, also need the synthesis of carbohydrates for energy.Full Answer >
A taxonomic key is a method used to classify and identify objects and organisms. It shows a series of choices about the characteristics of different organisms. A user picks from these choices and ultimately finds the identity of a specimen.Full Answer >
Some examples of saprophytes are the bacteria which subsist on human waste, the ink cap mushroom and non-photosynthetic plants, such as Indian pipe and gnome plant. Saprophyte is somewhat of an outdated name: fungi once termed saprophytes are now called saprobes, and plants once termed saprophytes are now called mycotrophic.Full Answer >
Botox is prepared from the bacteria that causes botulism, according to Drugs.com. The botulinum toxin temporarily reduces muscle activity by blocking nerve activity occurring in the muscles.Full Answer >