Lysosomes are cell components that contain enzymes designed to digest food particles by breaking down proteins. They rid cells of internal and external waste. They also dismantle dead cells through a process called autolysis.
A lysosome's acidic enzymes result from protein production caused by ribosomes. A protective membrane around the lysosome contains the enzymes, which are powerful enough to damage or kill the cell. The membrane also allows lysosomes to bond with and destroy foreign particles in the cell, including bacteria and other microbes. Large numbers of lysosomes are present in the kidneys and liver, the organs responsible for waste elimination in the body.Learn More
Scitable explains that the central role of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is to convert instructions written in the code of the organism's DNA into proteins. However, RNA is also involved in a number of other processes, such as signaling other cells and functioning as catalysts in cellular chemistry. Additionally, the ribosomes, which convert RNA into structural proteins, are themselves composed primarily of RNA.Full Answer >
The nucleolus works to transcribe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and it forms incomplete ribosomes by combining proteins and rRNA. Other functions of this structure include transporting molecules, vital substances and ions to ensure efficient cell metabolism.Full Answer >
Cell membranes are generally composed of proteins and fatty-acid-based lipids, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Membranes actively involved in metabolism have a higher proportion of protein. Mitochondria, the cell’s fastest metabolizing organelles, have a membrane that consists of 75 percent protein. The Schwann cell’s membrane only has 20 percent protein.Full Answer >
The nucleus controls protein synthesis in a cell's cytoplasm in the sense that the genetic codes contained in the nucleus determine the sequence of amino acids that are assembled to build the proteins. This is the only aspect of protein assembly directly controlled by the nucleus, while other mechanisms and structures in the cell are responsible for detecting which proteins are needed. The nucleus serves as a protein code database.Full Answer >