Lysosomes are cell components that contain enzymes designed to digest food particles by breaking down proteins. They rid cells of internal and external waste. They also dismantle dead cells through a process called autolysis.
A lysosome's acidic enzymes result from protein production caused by ribosomes. A protective membrane around the lysosome contains the enzymes, which are powerful enough to damage or kill the cell. The membrane also allows lysosomes to bond with and destroy foreign particles in the cell, including bacteria and other microbes. Large numbers of lysosomes are present in the kidneys and liver, the organs responsible for waste elimination in the body.Learn More
The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) performs several crucial functions, such as manufacturing lysosomal enzymes, manufacturing secreted proteins, integrating proteins in the cell membrane and facilitating glycosylation. The rough ER is an ancillary component of the broader endoplasmic reticulum, which contains a smooth surface in addition to the rough edges of the ER. Despite sharing a location, the smooth and rough ER perform different functions to facilitate basic operations within cells.Full Answer >
Scitable explains that the central role of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is to convert instructions written in the code of the organism's DNA into proteins. However, RNA is also involved in a number of other processes, such as signaling other cells and functioning as catalysts in cellular chemistry. Additionally, the ribosomes, which convert RNA into structural proteins, are themselves composed primarily of RNA.Full Answer >
The cellular structure responsible for packaging proteins for transport out of the cell is the Golgi apparatus. This structure was identified by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi in 1897 and officially named after him a year later.Full Answer >
Cell membranes are generally composed of proteins and fatty-acid-based lipids, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Membranes actively involved in metabolism have a higher proportion of protein. Mitochondria, the cell’s fastest metabolizing organelles, have a membrane that consists of 75 percent protein. The Schwann cell’s membrane only has 20 percent protein.Full Answer >