The function of the myelin sheath is to facilitate the conduction of electrical impulses through the nerve cells. The myelin sheath is made out of a modified plasma membrane that is wrapped around the nerve axon in a spiral pattern.Know More
The myelin sheath is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. When the myelin is damaged, nerve impulses slow down, and the nerve cell begins to wither. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis can result from damaged myelin sheaths. The sheath increases the electrical resistance of the cell by a factor of 5,000, which prevents the electrical current from leaving the axon of the nerve cell. The process of forming the myelin sheath is known as mylenization. The production of myelin begins during the 14th week of fetal development, but very little myelin is found in the brain at birth.
During infancy, mylenization occurs at a rapid rate and continues until adolescence. The myelin sheath is made up of lipids and proteins, and lipids account for 70 to 80 percent of the sheath's structure. Accordingly, it is important that infants receive greater amounts of fat in their diet than their adult counterparts. Myelin was originally discovered in 1854 by Rudolf Virchow, a German doctor.Learn more about Nerves
Sensory neurons are the nerve cells which carry information from outside stimuli to the central nervous system, which includes the spinal cord and brain. They are one of the three broad groups of neurons.Full Answer >
According to Neurogenetics at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, the human body has 95 to 100 billion neurons or nerve cells. The brain alone has at least 85 billion of these cells, although estimates go as high as 1 trillion.Full Answer >
The cerebrum, also called the cerebral cortex, is the portion of the brain that deals with thought processes and movement. There are four lobes to the cerebrum each associated with different processes. The right side is the creative side whereas the left provide the logic function of the brain.Full Answer >
The function of the thalamus is to regulate the body's voluntary motor control, consciousness and its sleep/wake cycle. It also regulates the senses of sight, sound, taste, touch and the sense of where the person's body is in space. The thalamus decides which signals from the ears, eyes, mouth and skin to relay to its area in the cerebral cortex. The thalamus doesn't relay information about the sense of smell.Full Answer >