Different types of topoisomerases have different functions and these include accessing DNA, recombination process strand breakage, removing DNA supercoils, chromosome condensation and detangling intertwined DNA. All forms of topoisomerases are a type of enzyme responsible for DNA supercoiling regulation.Know More
Topoisomerases are a common focus when it comes to disease treatment. There are two types of antibiotic medications, including coumarins and quinolones, which take advantage of topoisomerase II and IV. These antibiotics inhibit the bacteria's ability to replicate DNA, making them useful for bacterial diseases, such as tuberculosis, pneumonia and malaria.
Eukaryotic topoisomerase types I and II are helpful in the development of various anti-cancer medications. Drugs that inhibit type I cause single-strand DNA breaks, resulting in replication-mediated damage. This is beneficial because it allows for easier and more efficient repair of the DNA in normal cells compared to cancer cells. This type is also beneficial in gene inactivation. Drugs that inhibit type II are some of the most common anti-cancer medications because they cause double strand DNA breaks. Some medications target both types of topoisomerase, which helps to make the anti-cancer effects much stronger and allows the drugs to have multiple positive effects. In some cases, this allows for a hybrid drug with a specific target.Learn more about Science
The nucleoid is the region of the cell that contains primary DNA material, which includes several proteins and enzymes that transcribe DNA and RNA and assist with cell growth and development. Nucleoids are components of unicellular organisms classified as prokaryotes. Along with a plasma membrane and cytoplasm, nucleoids form the three main components that all prokaryotic cells possess.Full Answer >
The mRNA in cells relays instructions from the DNA inside the cell nucleus to tiny organelles in the cytoplasm called ribosomes. Ribosomes read the instructions and produce the proteins the cell needs.Full Answer >
The function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is to give genetic instruction to organic beings. DNA stores information to tell cells how to function, passing it on to the next generation of life through cells. It also helps in development.Full Answer >
The two main functions of the genetic material in a cell, also known as DNA, are gene expression and replication. DNA accomplishes gene expression by providing the instructions necessary for cell machinery to make proteins. Replication occurs when the DNA makes a copy of itself for incorporation into a new cell.Full Answer >