Transfer RNA, or tRNA, is responsible for decoding another type of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, in order to carry out the process of protein synthesis. Different types of tRNA exist, each of which communicates with a specific amino acid.Know More
Protein synthesis, or protein biosynthesis, is a process by which cells create new proteins in order to replace those lost through degeneration and transportation. Each protein, by definition, requires a specific chain of amino acids bound together. This takes place by assembling each protein by ribosomes. There are three types of RNA, or ribonucleic acid, which carry out this function: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
tRNA plays an essential role in the second step of protein synthesis, known as translation. This step, which occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell, translates genetic information from DNA form to protein form.
There are 20 different types of tRNA, one specific to each type of amino acid. Every tRNA molecule has its associated amino acid attached to the end of it. The tRNA helps the amino acid join the chain by recognizing and binding it to the proper codon. It then decodes the related mRNA molecule in order to translate the DNA sequence into a complete protein.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a family of biological molecules that function in gene synthesis, regulation and expression. Along with DNA, RNA plays an active role in transcribing and translating genes and proteins that make up the human body.Full Answer >
The function of RNA polymerase II is to synthesize mRNA using a DNA strand as a template, explains UC Davis BioWiki. The process, by which an mRNA strand is constructed from a DNA strand, is called transcription, and the product is called a primary transcript, notes North Dakota State University.Full Answer >
The main similarity between transcription and translation is that they are both important phases in the process of protein synthesis. Transcription is the copying of a DNA gene sequence into RNA, while translation is the conversion of an RNA sequence into a string of amino acids that becomes protein.Full Answer >
During the transcription of genetic data to new cells, DNA is encoded to mRNA, also known as messenger RNA. The mRNA is then prepared to create a new DNA molecule through genetic codes established by amino acids.Full Answer >