Fungi reproduce in one of two ways: asexually through mitosis, or sexually through meiosis. Sexual reproduction occurs far less frequently than asexual production and usually only when necessary to adapt to environmental change.
Asexual reproduction happens through vegetative spores, through mycelial fragmentation or through budding.
Vegetative reproduction occurs when a single haploid cell produces millions of spores through mitosis that are genetically identical to the original cell. These spores are incubated within a structure called a sporangium and are dispersed through a variety of means, such as being carred by wind, latching onto other organisms and even floating in water. Once these spores find a viable environment, they begin to grow and reproduce.
Mycelial fragmentation occurs when the fungus breaks down into many separate fragments and each of these grow into a new organism that is genetically identical to the original.
Unlike most fungus, yeast uses a different asexual method of reproduction known as budding, in which an offspring is formed and pinched off of the original cell.
Due to the need to adapt to new environments, most fungi also have the ability to reproduce sexually, through meiosis. This process involves two different strains of haploid cells fusing together to create a diploid spore, known as a zygospore. The resulting offspring contain genetic characteristics of both parents.Learn More
According to Jennifer Welsh for Live Science, amoebas are generally considered to reproduce asexually through a process called binary fission. This describes the act when the nucleus of one cell is spurred to divide into an equal and exact replica of itself within the same cell walls, after which the two nuclei separate into their own individual cells, resulting in two sovereign yet genetically identical amoebas.Full Answer >
According to HowStuffWorks, some types of algae reproduce asexually through the division of one cell into two or even more new cells that are genetically similar to the original parent cell. Other types of algae engage in sexual multi-cellular reproductive cycles to procreate.Full Answer >
Meiosis terminology is a vocabulary of words that are necessary to understand and explain the process of meiosis. Some important meiosis terms include chromosomes, nucleus, cell and genetic reassortment.Full Answer >
The stages of meiosis 1 and 2 are as follows: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II and cytokinesis again. There are two steps of cytokinesis during meiosis, because the cell must divide twice in order to end up with gametes that have only one set of chromosomes. DNA replicates before meiosis.Full Answer >