Glucose molecules are transported across cell membranes by facilitated diffusion or active transport. Most of the time, the former process takes place, as it requires no energy from the cell. Active transport indirectly requires energy from the hydrolysis of ATP.Know More
When glucose molecules move into the cell by facilitated diffusion, the concentration gradient plays an essential part. Glucose only enters the cell by diffusion if its intracellular concentration is lower than the extracellular one. To move across the cell membrane without requiring any energy, glucose needs a protein that acts like a carrier. Because there is a limited number of transporting proteins, this process reaches a maximum rate of transport that cannot be improved, even if the concentrations on either side of the membrane continue to present a significant difference.
Glucose enters the cell against the concentration gradient, by active transport. In fact, glucose takes part in a process of cotransport, along with an ion such as Na+. When the sodium ion binds to the receptor, the binding of glucose is also stimulated, despite its concentration gradient. The receptor closes on the exterior side and opens on the inside of the cell, releasing the sodium ion along with the glucose molecule. The passive and active glucose transport systems work independently, and drugs that inhibit one of the processes do not influence the other.Learn more about Human Anatomy
According to WebMD, high blood sugar levels cause excess glucose in the urine. High blood sugar levels are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes. When an individual's blood sugar level is high, it can spill into the urine. Glucose in the urine can also occur if the kidneys are suffering from damage or disease.Full Answer >
A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is the phospholipid. The phospholipid is made up of a polar head and two non-polar tails.Full Answer >
A human cell is a tiny container of chemicals, making it the basic building block of all human life. There are trillions of cells in a human being, and they determine the structure and function of each person.Full Answer >
The anterior horn cell is a portion of the spinal cord that contains the motor neurons responsible for body’s axial muscles. The anterior horn cell is also called the anterior column, anterior cornu or ventral horn. The anterior horn cell is one of the three parts of gray matter in the spinal column. The other two parts are the lateral and posterior gray columns. \Full Answer >