What happens when a cell undergoes mitosis?


During mitosis, a eukaryotic cell divides and forms two identical cells. Mitosis is a multi-step process, and the main goal is to ensure that each of the resulting daughter cells receives a copy of each chromosome.

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Mitosis occurs in somatic cells, and the daughter cells formed at the end of the process must not be different from the parent cells. In prophase, the first phase of mitosis, the chromosomes come together, forming a dense structure. The mitotic spindle begins to form. During prometaphase, the nuclear membrane breaks down. The chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell during metaphase.

During anaphase, the sister chromatids of the replicated chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite ends, becoming separate chromosomes. A nuclear membrane develops around each set of chromosomes during telophase. The cytoplasm begins to split between each nuclear membrane. At this point, cytokinesis, or the splitting of the cell into two, occurs, and mitosis is complete.

Mitosis is responsible for the body's growth and for the repair of injured cells. Mutations can develop as a result of mitosis because the chances of making a mistake during the process increases every time DNA is copied. It generally takes more than one error to create a cancerous cell, but the body has DNA repair systems that help fix most errors.

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