When sodium and chlorine combine, chlorine gains an electron and sodium loses an electron. As a result, the chlorine gains a negative charge and the sodium gains a positive charge. This process is known as ionic bonding.Know More
The electrons of an atom are not found in the nucleus with the protons and neutrons. Instead, they travel around the nucleus in orbitals. These orbitals are also called energy shells. An element is most stable when it has eight electrons in its outer energy shell.
The octet rule is a chemistry principle that says elements lose or gain electrons in an attempt to become more stable. Scientists say they attempt to attain noble gas configuration or become more like the nearest noble gas on the periodic table. When chlorine reacts with other elements, for example, it attempts to attain the electron configuration of argon.
Because chlorine only needs one more electron to attain noble gas configuration, it is a very reactive element. It is possible for a chlorine atom to gain two electrons, but it would require additional energy to pick up the second electron. Dr. Anne Marie Helmenstine says chlorine is more likely to participate in reactions where it gains one electron.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
Chlorine has three filled or partially-filled electron orbital shells. Its electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5, meaning its first and second electron orbital shells are filled, and its third electron orbital shell is partially filled.Full Answer >
The atomic number of sodium is 11, so it has a total of 11 electrons arranged in orbits around its nucleus. The electron configuration of sodium is [Ne] 3S1 or 2, 8, 1 with the last electron being the valence electron.Full Answer >
Sodium has one valence electron, which makes it very reactive with halogens and other nonmetals. Sodium is an alkali metal that is never found in its pure form in nature.Full Answer >
When an electron absorbs energy, it will move up from a lower energy level to a higher energy level, called the "excited state" of the negatively-charged subatomic particle. However, the absorbed energy is released within a small interval of time and the electron moves down to its "ground state."Full Answer >