The heat of vaporization is the amount of energy that is required to convert a substance from liquid to gaseous state without changing its temperature. A substance with a high heat of evaporation takes longer to transform between the two states.
The heat of evaporation is mainly dependent on the strength of intermolecular bonds. Substances with strong intermolecular bonds are more likely to have high heat of evaporation than those with weaker ones. When a substance reaches its boiling point, its temperature stagnates until all the substance is converted to a gas. All the heat energy exerted on the substance is used for breaking the intermolecular bonds. This is where the relationship between the heat of evaporation and intermolecular bond strength arises.Learn More
A solid can turn directly into a gas through a process called sublimation. In this instance, the solid vaporizes without going through the intermediary liquid stage. For example, in the water cycle, this would involve snow or ice turning directly into water vapor without going through the melting process. The opposite process, in which vapor changes into ice, is known as deposition.Full Answer >
A nonvolatile liquid is defined as a substance that does not actively evaporate into a gas. An example of a nonvolatile substance is glycerol, or glycerine.Full Answer >
Water boils when the thermal energy in the water, which is a type of kinetic energy which causes the water molecules to move around, exceeds the strength of the hydrogen bonds between the molecules, causing them to separate from the other molecules. This breaking of bonds between water molecules consumes any additional thermal energy added, so that water at boiling temperature does not increase in temperature until the phase change is complete. In normal conditions, much of the water vapor almost immediately turns to steam, which is actually composed of droplets of liquid water because it has left the source of heat.Full Answer >
Properties of matter, defined by Education Portal, are divided into two groups: physical properties that include color, density, mass, boiling point, volume, solubility, malleability and temperature; and chemical properties that include reactivity with oxygen, reactivity with water, flammability, pH, toxicity and combustion. Physical properties of matter can be observed or measured without changing the composition, while chemical properties can only be observed after a chemical change has occurred.Full Answer >