Hydration energy is the amount of heat released as an ionic substance is dissolved and its constituent ions are hydrated, or surrounded by water molecules. The polar water molecules adhere strongly to the ions, with the positive hydrogen ends orienting toward the negative ions and the negative oxygen ends orienting toward the positive ions. In general, the higher the hydration energy is, the more soluble the ionic substance is.Know More
As with other chemical reactions where new compounds are formed or old compounds are broken down, thermodynamic advantage is a large part of whether a reaction takes place spontaneously or not. This means that, in general, any chemical reaction is more likely to occur if it results in a release in energy, as this tends to create a more stable state for the compounds involved. There are cases where this tendency to release energy, the enthalpy of a reaction, is overcome by an increase in entropy, making energetically neutral or even unfavorable reactions occur.
The most familiar example of hydration energy is the dissolution of salt in water. Sodium chloride is the most common salt that people encounter, and it is comprised of ionic crystals of sodium ions and chloride ions. When it is dissolved by water, the water warms up due to the hydration energy released.Learn more about Solutions & Mixtures
Bleach, which is essentially chlorine dissolved in water, is not a flammable substance on its own. If mixed with certain materials such as ammonia or acetylene, it can become unstable, forming explosive compounds or reactions.Full Answer >
Silicone can be dissolved with a variety of solvents available online or in hardware stores. These products are sometimes called silicone eaters, and they work on both cured and freshly applied silicone.Full Answer >
A solute is the smaller part of a solution, which in many cases is said to have been dissolved by the solvent. A solution is any mixture that is homogeneous at a molecular level, which means that any given volume of the solution has about the same proportion of type of molecule in the overall solution as the overall solution.Full Answer >
Emulsifiers work by acting as a link between water molecules and nonpolar molecules, attracting the water with one end and the emulsified molecules with the other. They are made by bonding fatty acids, which attract hydrophobic substances, to a hydrophilic polar group, which attracts water molecules. Normally, substances like oil and water would separate out, even after thorough mixing, but emulsifiers keep the molecules evenly distributed.Full Answer >