A hydrogen bond occurs because a hydrogen atom with a polar covalent bond to oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine has a partial positive charge, and it is strongly attracted to the parts of similar molecules with a partial negative charge. The most common example is water, which contains hydrogen and oxygen.Know More
The amount of hydrogen bonding that occurs in a substance depends on the electron structure of the partially negative parts of the molecules. When oxygen binds to hydrogen, for instance, the oxygen and hydrogen share two electrons, one from each atom. The oxygen in water is bound to two hydrogens. This gives the oxygen atom a total of eight electrons in its outermost orbit, four of which are not shared with any hydrogen atoms.
These electrons are paired, so the molecule has two groups of two electrons. Each pair of unshared electrons can form a hydrogen bond with a hydrogen atom covalently bound to another oxygen atom, so each water molecule can have a hydrogen bond with the hydrogen from two other water molecules. Each of its two hydrogen atoms can form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of another water molecule, so each water molecule can form a total of four hydrogen bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are stronger than most polar forces, but are still much weaker than the covalent bonds within molecules.Learn more about Chemistry
The UCLA Illustrated Glossary of Organic Chemistry explains the structure of tert-butyl alcohol, which is also known as tert butanol: It consists of a central carbon atom surrounded by three molecules made of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms, along with one atom of oxygen bonded to a hydrogen atom. One molecule of tert-butyl alcohol features: four carbon atoms, 10 atoms of hydrogen and a single atom of oxygen.Full Answer >
The Rydberg constant is a constant that appears in the Balmer/Rydberg formula, which describes lines in the spectrum of radiation emitted by a hydrogen atom.Full Answer >
Hydrogen fluoride features a polar bond due to the difference in electron density between its fluoride atom and its hydrogen atom. When an atom with greater electron density binds with one that features a lower electron density, the bond is considered a polar one, according to McGraw-Hill Education.Full Answer >
Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and the first listed in the periodic table of elements. It is a colorless and odorless gas. Each atom of hydrogen contains one proton and one electron.Full Answer >