Human cases of albinism, a congenital pigment disorder, generally fall into two categories. The first, oculocutaneous, can affect the skin, eyes and hair, whereas the second, ocular, affects only the eyes. Although there is no cure for albinism, it is not strictly considered a sickness or a disease.
The major component of albinism is a lack of pigment, which results from inadequate levels of melanin as compared with average persons. This leads to a significantly perceivable whitening of those areas affected given the particular of albinism mentioned above. In cases where the skin is affected, albinos need take special care to protect themselves from excess sun exposure, and need to frequently visit dermatologists to ensure skin health.
Regardless of the category of albinism, all persons with albinism experience some level of visual impairment, usually without the possibility of corrective lenses making much difference. Indeed, most albinism is diagnosed through rudimentary eye testing. Individual visual impairment differs considerably, with some albinos being declared legally blind and others driving vehicles without issue. Surgery and other forms of rehabilitation are often available, though with wildly varying results based on individual circumstances.
Albinism affects people from all ethnic and racial backgrounds, without exception. Its prevalence is around one in every 17,000 persons, with different ratios applying to different populations. The highest occurrence is observed in persons of sub-Saharan African ethnicity. In general, albinos enjoy the same basic health as other members of the population, and experience similar average life spans and susceptibilities to illness and disease. In some cases, people with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome may run higher risk of lung cancer, and Albinos in tropical climates who fail to control sun exposure may be more vulnerable to certain skin cancers.Learn More
Two examples of active transport include the root hair cells in plants taking in mineral ions and humans taking in glucose through their intestines. In general terms, active transport refers to a substance moving from areas in which it has low concentration to an area with high concentration, and the substance is generally one that a cell needs for sustenance, like amino acids, ions or glucose.Full Answer >
Each amino acid is made of three base triplet codes called codons. Codons are made of three combinations of four available nucleotides. There are 64 potential combinations of codons.Full Answer >
Post-transcriptional modification is the process whereby changes occur in eukaryotic mRNA, tRNA or other RNAs after transcription occurs, according to class notes from Northwestern University. The changes to mRNA can include additions of a cap and tail and removal of introns. Changes to tRNA include modification of bases and removal of introns.Full Answer >
The C-reactive protein is a protein the liver manufactures that often becomes elevated in the presence of inflammation. Doctors frequently order tests that measure the level of C-reactive proteins in the blood. If it's high, inflammation somewhere in the body is suspected to be the culprit.Full Answer >