The mantle is the largest of the geological layers that make up the Earth. It is found beneath the crust and is about 1,800 miles thick. Surrounding the core, the mantle makes up about 84 percent of the volume of the Earth.
The mantle is made up of mafic and ultramafic rock. These are rocks made largely of iron and magnesium, and mafic is a portmanteau of the words "magnesium" and "ferric." The rock in the mantle is very hot and can be viscous or molten depending on the temperature and the pressure.
The mantle is divided into two zones. The upper mantle contains the lithosphere and the asthenosphere beneath it. The rocks in the lithosphere are mostly rigid, while the rocks in the asthenosphere are more plastic.
There is a transition zone between the upper and lower mantle and a boundary between the lower mantle and the core. The thickness of this boundary can vary.
There is also a boundary between the crust and the mantle called the Mohorovičić discontinuity or the Moho. Despite decades of effort, geologists still have not drilled all the way to the Moho. It is about 3 miles beneath the crust at its shallowest point.Learn More
Magnetism is a phenomenon of physical science that arises due to the forces between objects brought about by the motion of electrical charges within those objects. The motion of electric charges creates a magnetic field, which exerts a magnetic force on charged particles that move within that field. A magnetic field flows from one end of an object to the other, creating a dipole with positive and negative ends.Full Answer >
The lithosphere is the solid, outer layer of the Earth, and it is around 100 kilometers thick. It consists of the brittle upper portion of the crust and mantle. It is divided into huge sections called tectonic plates, on which the continents sit.Full Answer >
Earth's solid mass is composed of iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, sulfur, nickel, calcium and aluminum. These materials, according to Learner.org, are spread unequally among the planet's three main shells: its core, its mantle and its crust (from deepest to outermost).Full Answer >
A break in the Earth's crust is called a fault. According to Dictionary.com, a fault in geology is a fracture in the Earth's crust that results in the displacement and loss of continuity of rocks on either side of the fracture plane. A fault is the result of plate-tectonic forces.Full Answer >