Kepler's second law implies that the closer a planet is to its star, the faster the planet travels. This law is related to conservation of angular momentum. The law is important because the planets' orbits around stars are not circular, so planets are closer to their stars at certain points.Know More
Kepler's second law assumes that if a line is drawn between a star and its planet, for any set time period, that line sweeps out the same area each period, no matter where in orbit the planet is at the time.
For example, if the time period is 10 days, the line between the planet and the star sweeps out equal areas every 10 days. This is possible because when the planet is closer to its star, it moves faster, and when it is further away from its star, it moves slower. At aphelion, the point in a planet's orbit furthest away from the star, the planet moves the slowest. At perihelion, the planet is closest to its star and moves the fastest. This is because of the planet's conservation of angular momentum.
Angular momentum is directly proportional to an object's moment of inertia and angular velocity. When a planet's distance from its star increases, its moment of inertia increases. For its angular momentum to remain the same, the planet's angular velocity has to decrease.Learn more about Motion & Mechanics
Newton’s second law states that the force acting on an object is directly related to the acceleration. The law is formulated as F = m x a, where F = force, a = acceleration and m = mass of the object in motion. In terms of Atwood’s machine, a force equal to the difference in the suspended weights accelerates the total mass, m1+ m2.Full Answer >
The law of conservation of momentum states that for two objects colliding in an isolated system, the total momentum before and after the collision is equal. This is because the momentum lost by one object is equal to the momentum gained by the other.Full Answer >
Hooke's Law is used to describe the behavior of springs and other elastic objects when stretched by a force. It states that the amount of deformation is in a linear relationship with the force used, so that twice a given force produces twice the deformation. Hooke's Law applies only to stress forces, so at high levels of force, this relationship breaks down.Full Answer >
The law of the pendulum, discovered by Galileo Galilei, states that swinging objects follow the same path and have a period between swings that remains constant. Galileo attracted immediate attention for the discovery, which was later used in clock regulation.Full Answer >