Convection occurs in the aesthenosphere. The aesthenosphere lies directly beneath the lithosphere at depths of between 62 and 124 miles.Know More
The aesthenosphere is a layer of solid rock that is so hot, the rock melts and flows like a liquid, easily breaking apart. The most dramatic earthquakes are caused by rocks in the aesthenosphere breaking apart.
Large convection currents transfer heat to the surface of the Earth, and these currents cause the magma to break apart. When this happens, it creates divergent plate boundaries. When the plates separate, they cool down and get reabsorbed back into the aesthenosphere.
Because the aesthenosphere is so deep, scientists cannot really study it until an earthquake or volcano occurs. They know that earthquakes change speed and direction when there is a change in the density of the rocks being affected. Rocks in the aesthenosphere rise up to the surface of the planet where there is evidence of tectonic plates separating.
Scientists cannot tell how deep the aesthensosphere goes. Some think it is a layer that delves around 434 miles into the Earth. Until better technology is built to help them study this layer, they have to study things like earthquakes, volcanoes and magma chambers in the world's oceans.Learn more about Layers of the Earth
Mantle conviction is the process in which heat is transferred from the Earth's core to its surface; heat is released from the core and rises, causing temperature fluctuation where the excess temperature from the hot magma is transferred to the colder areas above it and eventually to the Earth's surface. An everyday example of this process is boiling water; hot water from the bottom of the pot rises to transfer energy to the cooler water at the top, which sinks to the bottom.Full Answer >
Convection currents in Earth's mantle are caused by the rise of hot material rising towards the crust, becoming cooler and sinking back down. This process occurs repeatedly, causing the currents to constantly flow. The movement of the currents plays a factor in the movement of the mantle.Full Answer >
The thickness of the Earth's crust varies with location and ranges from 1 to 80 kilometers thick. The continental crust is 50 kilometers thick on average, while the oceanic crust typically reaches no more than 20 kilometers thick.Full Answer >
The Earth's magnetosphere protects the planet from solar winds and high-energy particles by redirecting this energy around the planet. When charged particles approach the Earth, the magnetosphere affects them due to their magnetic properties. Particles blown by the solar wind simply sweep around the Earth, while slower radioactive particles may become part of the Earth's radiation belts, held safely above the surface by the magnetosphere.Full Answer >