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# What are leptons?

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A lepton is a building block of matter. Several leptons exists, including electrons, muons, tau particles and neutrinos. Leptons differ in characteristics with neutrinos being the most exotic.

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The electron is considered a fundamental particle. It follows Pauli's Exclusion principle, meaning it cannot have the same quantum number or have the same energy state as another electron. Its antiparticle is the positron, which carries an opposite charge. The muon decays to form either an electron or positron. The tau is the largest of leptons and has a mass that is 3490 times more at rest than the electron and 17 times more than a muon.

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## Related Questions

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The quantization of energy refers to the absorption or emission of energy in discreet packets, or quanta. As the intensity of electromagnetic energy increases or decreases, it steps up or down from one quantized level to another, rather than follow a smooth and continuous curve. The quantization of energy, also known as "quantum theory," describes how energy can only be lost or gained in multiples of a smallest possible unit of energy, which is referred to as a "quantum."

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The sum of protons and neutrons is the mass number. The mass of an atom is contained mainly within the nucleus where the protons and neutrons live. An electron's mass does not contribute significantly to the mass of the atom.

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One example of E=m*c^2 is the equation that demonstrates the conversion of 1 kg of matter into 9.0*(10^16) J of energy. Examples of E=m*c^2, or the mass-energy equivalence equation, can be found in physics classrooms in equations that convert matter to energy and vice versa. The formula is based on the theory that matter is directly proportional to energy.