According to the University of New Mexico, macromolecules are large molecules that are created by the polymerization of smaller molecules. Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are the four classes of macromolecules.Know More
Macromolecules are made of smaller molecules. In carbohydrates and proteins these smaller particles are referred to as monomers. When two similar or identical monomers are bonded together they form a larger polymer molecule. The monomers of carbohydrates are monosaccharides or simple sugars, and when two or more of these are linked by a covalent bond it creates a disaccharide. When they are bonded together they form a complex sugar or a polysaccharide. The monomers of proteins are called amino acids, which can be strung together in different combinations known as polypeptide chains.
Carbohydrates are the first macromolecules that are used as energy for the body. They are often referred to as fast fuel. Glucose and cellulose are both examples of carbohydrates. Lipids are stored inside the body as reserve energy because they are harder to break down than carbohydrates, but they do contain more energy per unit than carbohydrates. Once the body uses all of the fast fuel it has, it begins breaking down lipids which are stored in the body as fat molecules, including triglycerides.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
DNA, also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, belongs to a class of polymeric organic macromolecules called nucleic acids. The only other member of this class is ribonucleic acid, or RNA. Nucleic acids were first discovered in 1869 by the Swiss scientist Friedrich Miescher.Full Answer >
The four major macromolecules necessary for life are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are the most prevalent, and they are a source of immediate energy for living things.Full Answer >
Covalent bonds form when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms to become a more stable molecule. Atoms share their electrons in order to completely fill up their outer-most layer — the valence shell. Two atoms that are covalently bonded have less energy than the individual atoms, making the bonded atoms more stable.Full Answer >
Phosphorus has 15 electrons. With an atomic number of 15, phosphorus also has 15 protons. Phosphorus has five electrons in its outermost energy level and forms many compounds with other elements.Full Answer >