Ribosomes are a type of organelle found in every cell, and their main function is to synthesize proteins for use throughout the cell. In the ribosomes, individual amino acids are arranged into long protein chains according to the sequence of mRNA, or messenger RNA. It is the ribosome's job to read the sequence of mRNA and translate it into the correct sequence of amino acids for each protein that must be made.Know More
The process by which ribosomes make protein calls for several steps. First, the mRNA is made in the nucleus of the cell and sent to the ribosome. The mRNA then combines with the ribosome's subunits, which themselves are made of protein, and is interpreted into a new sequence known as tRNA, or transfer RNA. Each nucleic acid of the tRNA chain is bound to an amino acid. Once the tRNA chain is complete, the ribosome pulls the amino acids off of the tRNA and connects them into a long protein chain.
All prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain ribosomes, though those found in eukaryotic cells are larger. Some ribosomes, known as free ribosomes, are found directly in the cytosol. Others are bound to the cell's endoplasmic reticulum, which makes it easier to transport their finished products throughout the cell. Ribosomes are also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, and they serve the same function -- to make proteins for these organelles to use.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
The Golgi apparatus collects simple chemicals in the cell and assembles them into large, complex structures such as proteins. It also plays a role in the process of simple chemical secretion by forming closed vesicles around the substance to be transported. These vesicles then pinch off from the Golgi apparatus and drift to the cell's plasma membrane where the transported substance is released from the cell.Full Answer >
The ribosomes make proteins in the cell. Cytoplasmic granules that are rich in ribonucleic acid, or RNA, compose ribosomes. Proteins are made continuously and are responsible for the function, structure and regulation of the tissues and organs in the body.Full Answer >
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that produces proteins and helps them fold properly. Cells also have a smooth endoplasmic reticulum that processes fats and steroid hormones.Full Answer >
Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have multiple features in common, including the use of DNA to code for proteins, RNA for translation into proteins and ribosomes to read the RNA. Both types also share such basic cell features as cell membranes and molecules, such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Many prokaryotes and eukaryotes also have cell walls, but the constituents of the walls differ between them.Full Answer >