To make a DNA model using pipe cleaners, use two different-colored pipe cleaners cut into short lengths, then attach them to the longer pipe cleaners to make a ladder; twist this ladder to make the double-helix. The process takes approximately 30 minutes.Know More
Choose two colors for the bases and two colors for the polynucleotide strands. Cut the pipe cleaners for the base into approximately 3 1/2 inches. For a 2-foot-long DNA model with the bases 2 inches apart, you need at least 12 base pieces.
Make each strand approximately 2 feet long by connecting multiple pipe cleaners. On a flat surface, place the two strands about 3 inches apart. Determine how you want to order the bases by color onto the strands. Lay the bases between the strands, starting at the top and leaving 2 inches of space between each base. Attach the ends of each base to the strands by wrapping the ends around the strands.
To complete the familiar double-helix look of a DNA model, twist the ladder by holding the top with one hand and using your other hand to turn the bottom of the ladder. Carefully rearrange the pipe cleaners to enhance the shape.
Materials for making DNA models range from household items, such as pipe cleaners, foam balls and toothpicks, to edible candy, such as licorice, marshmallows and gummy bears. Recycled materials, such as aluminium and plastic soft drink bottles, caps and drinking straws, can also be used to make DNA models.Full Answer >
The rungs of the DNA ladder consist of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. Each rung of the ladder is composed of two of the nitrogenous bases held together by hydrogen bonds.Full Answer >
The sides of the DNA ladder are made up of a combination of alternating sugars and phosphates. These molecules are what holds the rungs of DNA together on the ladder.Full Answer >
The rungs of the DNA ladder are made of complementary nitrogenous base pairs. DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. The nitrogenous bases are divided into the purines and the pyrimidines; each rung of the DNA molecule contains one purine and one pyrimidine bonded together.Full Answer >