An oxygen atom can form two covalent bonds. An atom's number of valence electrons dictates how many bonds the atom can form. Since an oxygen atom has six valence electrons and wants eight, it uses two of its six valance electrons for bonding. The remaining four exist as lone pairs.Know More
Even though oxygen has six valence electrons, it is unable to form six covalent bonds. If oxygen formed six covalent bonds, then it would share a total of 12 electrons. Oxygen, like most other atoms, is most stable when it shares eight electrons only. Since oxygen needs two more electrons to reach the eight it needs, it only forms two bonds.
Coordinate covalent bonds, also known as coordinate links or semipolar bonds, are different from normal covalent bonds because both of the electrons that are shared by the bonded atoms originally come from the same atom. This contrasts with normal covalent bonds, in which each atom gives up one of the two electrons that form the shared electron pair.Full Answer >
In an ionic bond, an electron leaves one atom to join another, while a covalent bond is a sharing of electrons between two atoms. Polar covalent bonds occur when two atoms share an uneven number of electrons.Full Answer >
In nonpolar covalent bonds, electrons are shared equally by both members of the bond, but they are shared unequally in polar covalent bonds. Polar covalent bonds occur when there is a difference in electronegativity, or electron affinity, between covalently bonded atoms. The polarity, or lack thereof, of a molecule greatly affects how it interacts with other molecules.Full Answer >
Covalent bonds form when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms to become a more stable molecule. Atoms share their electrons in order to completely fill up their outer-most layer — the valence shell. Two atoms that are covalently bonded have less energy than the individual atoms, making the bonded atoms more stable.Full Answer >