The element sodium has 11 protons, which is denoted by the atomic number. Because protons are electrically positive and repel each other by the electromagnetic force, sodium needs 12 neutrons in order to be stable. The residual strong nuclear force exchanged between baryons keeps the neutrons and protons together.
Sodium has at least 20 isotopes, which are versions with varying numbers of protons or neutrons. The most common version of the sodium atom, with 11 protons, is the only stable variant. This suggests that 11 protons and 12 neutrons is an especially stable configuration and represents a near-perfect atomic balance.Learn More
A metallic bond forms when the valence electrons are not associated with a particular atom or ion. Instead, they exist as a "cloud" of electrons around the ion centers.Full Answer >
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose is 45. This total is calculated by adding the number of atoms noted in its molecular formula, C12H22O11.Full Answer >
Three scientists independently discovered the element boron in 1808: Sir Humphrey Davy in London and Joseph Gay-Lussac and L. J. Thénard in Paris. Davy produced boron by combining potassium and boric acid in a chamber filled with hydrogen, while the French chemists combined boric acid with magnesium to similar effect.Full Answer >
Positively charged atomic particles are called protons. These particles, along with neutrons, exist in the nucleus of the atom. Protons and neutrons each have an atomic mass of one.Full Answer >