The chemical element silicon has four valence electrons. The atom, which is the fundamental unit of an element, has its valence electrons in its outermost shell.
Silicon belongs to the carbon family of elements, or group 14, in the periodic table. Although some of its chemical characteristics are unique and distinct from other group 14 elements, silicon exhibits the same bonding properties as carbon. Silicon can chemically combine with other atoms by sharing or losing its four valence electrons. However, silicon in solid form is generally non-reactive, particularly with water or oxygen. Due to its abundance on the earth's crust, silicon has several practical applications, including electronics, glass and ceramics manufacture and synthetic compounds production.Learn More
Plutonium naturally forms in the heart of a star undergoing supernova, along with virtually all of the heavy elements in the universe. It is not found on Earth due to its instability. The most stable isotope of naturally occurring plutonium has a half-life of only 82,000,000 years and is exhausted well before it can be taken up in planetary formation. However, humans have been able to artificially create plutonium.Full Answer >
Workers involved in the manufacturing and production of polyurethane are at the greatest risk of being exposed to the effects of the chemical. Polyurethane is made from a reaction of polyol with diisocyanates or polymeric isocyanate. Diisocyanates can cause allergic reactions and irritations to the skin, nose, throat and eyes.Full Answer >
An element is a description of a type of atom, so a single atom is representative of an element but not an element itself. "An atom" refers to a physical entity; "an element" refers to a type of atom.Full Answer >
Gas comes from crude oil. The remains of organisms that lived on Earth hundreds of millions of years ago were eventually covered with sediment and rock. The pressure and heat of the Earth caused the remains and sediment to combine and create liquid hydrocarbon, or crude oil.Full Answer >