Matter comprises all substances that take up space and have mass, and it may exist as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. Light and energy are not matter because they have no mass and do not occupy space.Know More
The molecules that make up a solid lie close together and are bound strongly to one another. Because of this, solids have a distinct shape of their own that is not dependent on a container. The molecular bonds of a liquid are weaker than those of a solid, meaning that liquids do not have fixed shape. A liquid takes the shape of its container, but it does not change in volume. Molecules in a gas are very weakly bound. Like liquids, gases take the shape of their container. However, gases also change volume, expanding to fill their entire container.
The fourth phase of matter is plasma. Plasmas exist only at the high temperatures and pressures of the sun or bolts of lightning. Plasmas occur as electrons tear away from atoms, leaving behind positive ions and free electrons. Most scientists consider plasmas to be fluids like liquids and gases. Substance are able to transition between the stages of matter given the application or removal of heat.Learn more in Physics
Energy is the ability to do work, such as the ability to move matter against opposing forces such as gravity and friction. Energy exists in several forms, including kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion, and potential energy, which is the capacity to do work.Full Answer >
E=mc^2 describes the conversion ratio between matter and energy, and as such, it has been used to aid the design of nuclear power stations and atomic weapons. It is also a useful theoretical tool that helps astrophysicists understand the reactions taking place in stars.Full Answer >
A crystal lattice is a rigid, three-dimensional atomic structure for the solid phase of matter. Characteristics of a crystal lattice include a symmetrical and infinitely repeating arrangement of atoms.Full Answer >
In 1909, Rutherford's X-ray experiments shattered conventional wisdom when he discovered that electrons didn't occupy matter like evenly-distributed raisins in a pudding. However, Bohr found Rutherford's conclusions to be inaccurate and proposed the revolutionary idea that atoms behaved according to the laws of quantum physics.Full Answer >