Metals lose electrons to form ions, a process that typically occurs between metals and non-metals. Because metals have a very low electronegativity, they lose electrons easily to high-electronegativity non-metals.
Metals generally have very few electrons in their outer electron shell. Because an atom always seeks to balance out the number of electrons in each of its shells, the atoms in metals are eager to lose the lone electron in their outer shell. Whenever two outer shells come into contact, the one that needs an electron to complete its electron set easily takes the lone electron from the other atom. ChemGuide explains this phenomenon as electronegativity.
Georgia State University clarifies the nature of electronegativity, stating an atom's ultimate goal is to form a polar bond. Metals are fairly unstable elements, known for their ability to form bonds rapidly. Princeton notes an ionic bond is formed when a metal and a non-metal exchange one or more electrons. This exchange occurs because metals and non-metals are polar opposites, each reacting to the opposite charge of the other. Although it is possible for a non-metal to lose an electron to a metal, the opposite is the ideal exchange and far more likely to occur under normal circumstances.Learn More
The atoms involved in ionic bonding are held together by an electrostatic force of attraction between a positive and a negative ion. Ionic bonds are only formed between metals and non-metals.Full Answer >
Alkanes have no double or triple bonds, alkenes have one or more double bonds and alkynes have one or more triple bonds. Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are all types of hydrocarbons.Full Answer >
An atom of boron has three valence electrons. The valence electrons of boron occupy the second orbit around the nucleus of the boron atom. Thus, the boron atom has an electronic configuration of [He] 2s2 2p1.Full Answer >
The element phosphorus has five valence electrons. Valence electrons refer to the amount of electrons in the outer shell of an atom. If an orbital is not full of atoms, it is likely to try to fill or deplete it in order to become more stable.Full Answer >