Methyl, ethyl and propyl are all alkyl groups that can be attached to aromatic ring systems. They all have different chemical and physical properties and all affect the aromatic ring system differently.Know More
Methyl groups are derived from methane. They are composed of one central carbon with three surrounding hydrogen atoms. The carbon attaches to the ring system.
Ethyl groups are derived from ethane. They are composed of two carbon atoms and five hydrogen atoms. Ethyl groups only contain single bonds, and the ring system attaches to the carbon in the group with fewer hydrogen atoms attached.
Propyl groups are derived from propane. They are composed of three carbon atoms and seven hydrogen atoms. Propyl groups can have two forms. The normal, or n-propyl group, has three carbon atoms in a row with seven hydrogen atoms attached. In n-propyl, the ring system attaches to the carbon at the end of the group. In isopropyl, there are still three carbon atoms and seven hydrogen atoms, but the middle carbon atom is attached to only one hydrogen atom instead of two or three. This leaves a lone pair of electrons on the carbon atom for bonding. The ring system attaches to the middle carbon.
Other alkyl groups include butyl groups with four carbon atoms, pentyl groups with five carbon atoms; and hexyl groups with six carbon atoms.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) has a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 degrees. This is because carbon has four valence electrons forming four bonds and in a three-dimensional space, a tetrahedral shape allows for the bonded electrons to be furthest away from each other.Full Answer >
Benzene and methyl benzene differ in that benzene consists of one aromatic ring with no additional atoms, and methyl benzene consists of an aromatic ring bonded to one methyl group. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6, and the formula for methyl benzene is C7H8. Because the chemical structures are so similar, benzene and methyl benzene have similar chemical and physical properties.Full Answer >
The Bohr model for nitrogen has a central nucleus with seven neutrons and seven protons, a first energy ring with two electrons and a second energy ring with five electrons. A more detailed version shows two electrons in the s sub-shell of the second energy ring and three electrons in the p sub-shell. The Bohr model is used to demonstrate how the electrons line up around the nucleus of an atom.Full Answer >
When a hydrogen molecule is attached to a carbon molecule on a benzene ring, the hydrogen is called a "benzylic hydrogen." The benzylic hydrogen is always attached to the carbon molecule on the side chain.Full Answer >