Microbes are useful to humans in innumerable ways. Members of this group of organisms are involved in human pursuits that range from producing and testing medicine to growing, preparing and digesting food. The scientific study of microbes enriches humanity's understanding of genetics, disease and other aspects of life on planet Earth.Know More
Microbes aid humans directly in many ways. Some microbes produce medicinal or bio-active compounds, such as the antibiotic penicillin, which is naturally derived from a type of mold. Other microbes are used to ferment vegetables, grains and milk products to make pickles, bread, alcohol, yogurt and cheese. Scientists use microbes as model organisms and living tools in the laboratory, and using microbes to study human genetics, biochemistry and disease has revolutionized human understanding of the biological world. Microbes are also used to perform essential steps in industrial processes such as the reclamation of waste water.
Natural microbial activity also confers indirect advantages to humanity. The decomposition of organic matter and the recycling of nutrients in agricultural and natural ecosystems is accomplished by microbes. Microbes are also responsible for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, which enhances soil fertility in these systems. Naturally occurring microbial communities also help control the spread of plant and animal pathogens and limit the population size of insect pest populations. Ultimately, microbes are responsible for regulating most of the global systems that make Earth hospitable to human habitation.Learn more about Cells
Arizona State University states that meiosis is how sexually reproducing organisms, including humans, produce gametes, or sex cells. Gametes are fundamentally different from the body, or somatic, cells of sexually reproductive organisms because gametes only have half of the genetic code in their nucleus. When two different gametes fuse and produce a zygote, their half-complements of genetic material combine to form a complete genome with the full complement of chromosomes.Full Answer >
In humans, there are 46 chromosomes in a stomach cell. The stomach, like most of the body, is composed of somatic cells, so the number of chromosomes in a stomach cell is equivalent to an organism's diploid number.Full Answer >
According to Dictionary.com, the function of stroma in both humans and plant cells is as a supportive matrix. In people, stroma is the connective and supportive tissue of organs. In plants, the stroma is the cytoplasm in a cell's chloroplasts, according to the University of Illinois.Full Answer >
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells function as a protective layer in the respiratory system of humans, according to CliffsNotes. These specialized cells feature rectangular shapes, vertical appearances and hair-like cilia on the end, while the nucleus is near the base.Full Answer >