Minerals are most commonly classified by the Dana system. Minerals are identified according to hardness, specific gravity, color, luster, streak, cleavage and crystal form.Know More
The Dana system of classification was devised by Professor James Dana of Yale University in 1848. His system classified minerals according to their chemical composition. For example, a halide has Cl (chlorine), Br (bromine), F (fluorine) or I (iodine) at the end of its chemical formula.
A new Dana system of classification contains 78 different classes of minerals based on composition and then further classified by type and group. To be considered a mineral, a substance must be an inorganic, naturally formed solid, with a specific chemical formula and a fixed internal structure. To test whether something is a mineral, there are several identification tests to which the substance is subjected, including its resistance to scratching, its density in comparison to water, its color, the degree of light it reflects, the color of the powdered mineral, its breakage pattern and its crystalline form.
There are over 4,900 different types of minerals known in the world.Learn more about Geology
Minerals are formed under a variety of conditions, including when molten materials cool, when liquids evaporate or cool and under high temperatures and pressures. Minerals are found in the earth's crust and mantle, and many were created when feldspar and quartz reacted with other materials during the formation of the planet.Full Answer >
Minerals come from the Earth’s crust, and they are found in various places throughout the world. Geological processes, such as metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous processes, are responsible for the concentration of minerals. Mineral deposits form into different shapes and sizes depending on the location and process of concentration.Full Answer >
Some important characteristics of minerals are color, hardness, streak, cleavage, fracture and luster. These characteristics do not require any complicated equipment to determine and are useful in identifying specific minerals.Full Answer >
Minerals that contain silicon and oxygen are called silicates. In the Earth's mantle and crust, silicates make up approximately 80 percent of its volume. In nature, silicates are abundant, and they can be classified according to different chemical compositions and crystal structures.Full Answer >