Q:

How do mitosis and meiosis compare and contrast?

A:

Mitosis is the division of a cell to create two identical daughter cells, whereas meiosis forms daughter cells that are different than the parent cell. Mitosis is a means of replacing old cells; meiosis forms sex cells, or gametes.

At the beginning of mitosis, chromosomes become visible in the nucleus of the cell. The nuclear membrane dissolves and special fibers, the spindle, line the chromosomes up across the middle of the cell. Pairs of chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and new nuclear envelopes form around them. The chromosomes decondense, becoming invisible again as the entire cell splits down the middle. The result of this process is two identical daughter cells.

The beginning of meiosis is similar to mitosis, except that homologous, or like, chromosomes pair up. The chromosome pairs consist of one chromosome of each parent. Like mitosis, the nuclear envelope disappears and spindle fibers form to align chromosomes and pull them to opposite ends of the cell. The alignment of homologous chromosomes in meiosis is random, meaning that daughter cells can get chromosomes from either parent. This is one source of genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Another source is that the homologous chromosomes, while in their pairs, trade genetic material with one another, further increasing genetic diversity. Meiosis ends much like mitosis, but instead of identical cells, the result is two distinctly different daughter cells.

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Related Questions

  • Q:

    In what way is meiosis ii similar to mitosis?

    A:

    Meiosis II and mitosis are similar in that both processes involve the separation of attached, duplicated chromosomes, called sister chromatids, into daughter cells, explains University of Illinois at Chicago. While meiosis I is a reductive division, meiosis II and mitosis are equatorial divisions, notes Boundless.

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  • Q:

    How many chromosomes are in each daughter cell at the end of mitosis?

    A:

    In human cell mitosis, each daughter cell will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, which is 46 chromosomes. If the parent cell is diploid, it has two sets of chromosomes, or a total of 46. If it is haploid, such as sperms and eggs, they have one set of chromosomes, or just 23.

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  • Q:

    What are mitosis and meiosis?

    A:

    Mitosis and meiosis are biological functions that create cell division and enable reproduction. These two processes are similar in that they produce offspring cells, but differ in the type of cells they produce. While mitosis results in the generation of two identical daughter cells that originate from single parent cells, meiosis involves the fission of two nuclei, which produces four gametes.

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  • Q:

    Why is mitosis important?

    A:

    Mitosis is important because it is essential for growth and repair in the body. Mitosis happens when a parent cell divides, creating two identical copies, referred to as daughter cells. During this process, it is essential that the daughter cells are exactly the same with the same copies of DNA.

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