The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a substrate. Enzymes are very specific and usually act on a particular substrate, where the substrate fits into the enzyme at a region called the active site. Enzymes can divide a substrate into two different substances or add two substrates together.
Substrates fit into the active site of enzymes, but the shape of the active site is so specific that only a certain substrate can fit. The lock-and-key theory states that the substrate fits into the enzyme like a key into a lock; only the correct key induces the enzyme to act. Another theory, the induced-fit theory, states that only a particular substrate can fit into the active site and transform it so that the active site fits snugly around the substrate, thus activating the enzyme.Learn More
A Ph.D. in chemical engineering is a high-level academic achievement that awards the title of "doctor of philosophy in chemical engineering." Doctoral degrees are awarded when a student has completed an undergraduate degree, a master's degree and the requirements for earning a Ph.D.Full Answer >
Taq polymerase is an enzyme that is used by scientists in the polymerase chain reaction because it is stable at high temperatures. It is the polymerase used by a bacteria, Thermus auquatics, which lives in hot springs,Full Answer >
Dangers associated with cloning include a chance of developmental issues arising later in life, a low success rate, which necessitates time-consuming and cost-intensive repeat cloning attempts, gene abnormalities and differences in chromosome lengths and patterns. Cloning occurs in many living organisms; some cloned species develop normally while others show abnormalities at birth or later in life.Full Answer >
The difference between homologous pairs and sister chromatids is that homologous pairs are already in the cell to begin with, but sister chromatids are formed during the meiosis I stage The purpose of meiosis is to drop the number of chromosomes in a cell down to 23 so that when a sperm and egg combine, 46 chromosomes are present.Full Answer >