A monoatomic ion is one that forms from a single atom. Ions with a positive charge, such as sodium (Na+) are cations. Those with a negative charge, such as chlorine (Cl-) are anions. Monoatomic ions are also known as simple ions.
Ions form by gaining or losing electrons. In neutral atoms, the number of protons and electrons are equal. This gain or loss of electrons results in a positive or negative electrical charge. Ions form in several ways. Ionic compounds that dissolve in water dissociate into cations and anions while in solution. Ions form when atoms are bombarded with radiation. When certain ionic compounds melt, ions form in the liquid.
Substances that ionize in water are electrolytes. Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity. However, a water solution containing electrolytes conducts electricity. As the water evaporates, the ions join to form neutral compounds again. However, if other ions are present, they sometimes join to form new compounds. If an acid neutralizes a base, the H+ ions join the OH- ions to form water. The remaining ions form a salt. Certain ions combine in solution to form an insoluble material and precipitate out of the solution. In precipitation reactions, the ions not involved in the precipitate remain in solution.Learn More
The Lewis dot structure for P, the chemical symbol for a single atom of phosphorous, is written with a P surrounded by two dots together on one side and three single dots on the three remaining sides. Each dot represents a valence electron.Full Answer >
Atoms are tiny particles that make up the universe, while molecules are made from atoms (even a single atom). However, both constitute small, identifiable units.Full Answer >
Atomic mass is the mass of a single atom or an individual isotope. The atomic weight is the average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.Full Answer >
A sample of a given element can consist of a single atom of that element, and so there is no fixed quantity of molecules required to make up an element. In the universe at large, however, hydrogen is by far the most abundant element.Full Answer >