Q:

What are the monomers of DNA and RNA?

A:

Quick Answer

The monomers of DNA and RNA are nucleotides, which are made up of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base. In DNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. In RNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.

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DNA and RNA is a polymer, or macromolecule, made up of many similar smaller molecules covalently bonded together. These smaller molecules are called monomers, and the specific monomers vary depending on the macromolecule (protein, carbohydrates or nucleic acids). Because DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, the monomers that form them are nucleotides, which are molecules made up of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group. According to About, these nucleotides are covalently bonded together when the nitrogenous base of one nucleotide corresponds with the nitrogenous base of another nucleotide.

According to How Stuff Works, the four nitrogenous bases fall into two categories: purines and pyrimidines. The purines are double-ringed, and the pyrimidines are single-ringed. When a nucleotide bonds to another nucleotide, a purine base and a pyrimidine base hook up. Adenine pairs up with thymine, and cytosine always pairs up with guanine. After they bond, the nucleotides form the double helix of DNA.

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Related Questions

  • Q:

    What five-carbon sugars are found in DNA nucleotides?

    A:

    The five-carbon sugar found in DNA nucleotides is called 2?-deoxyribose. It is similar to the ribose, a sugar found in RNA. Deoxyribose has one fewer oxygen molecule. Ribose and deoxyribose are the only five-carbon sugars found in nature.

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  • Q:

    What are nucleotides made of?

    A:

    Nucleotides are made up of a phosphate group, a five-ring sugar and a nitrogenous base. Nucleic acids, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic (RNA), contain repeating nucleotides. Nucleotides link together to form nucleic acids by connecting the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar of another.

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  • Q:

    What is a phosphoester bond?

    A:

    A phosphoester bond is a bond between the phosphorous atom of a phosphate group and an oxygen atom. Phosphoester bonds should not be confused with phosphodiester bonds, which consist of two phosphoester bonds between a phosphate group and two oxygen atoms.

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  • Q:

    What does a nucleotide consist of?

    A:

    A single nucleotide consists of a base, a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group, which consists of phosphorous and oxygen. The base consists of adenine, thymine, guanine or cytosine, while the sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose.

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