Mount Tambora formed over many centuries as a stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano. A stratovolcano contains alternating layers of lava flow and ash to build its conical shape. The lava flows harden into rock that is resistant to erosion. In 1815, Mount Tambora erupted after several centuries of inactivity and lost 1500 meters in elevation.Know More
Mount Tambora is located on Sumbawa, an island in Indonesia. Ocean crust flanks the island to the north and south. Subduction zones, created by tectonic plate boundaries, allowed lava to build the mountain to its greatest height, estimated at 4,300 meters. At that point, it was one of the tallest peaks in Indonesia. Scientists believe the lava inside the mountain's magma chamber then drained. Over several centuries, lava refilled the chamber, with volcanic activity reaching its peak in April 1815.
By using radiocarbon dating, scientists have determined Mount Tambora erupted three times in history prior to 1815. Each of these eruptions was a central vent eruption, and all produced lava flow except the last. In the 1815 eruption, pumice stones up to 8 inches in diameter started to fall to the earth an hour after the eruption, followed by ash. Lava flows cascaded down the mountain in all directions, forming yet another layer of this active volcano.Learn more in Volcanoes
Mount Kilimanjaro is a stratovolcano that formed as the plates below it dropped and porous basalt rock magma erupted through the surface of the ocean. The magma and other debris formed layers with each eruption, eventually rising high enough to bring Mount Kilimanjaro to its height of 19,341 feet.Full Answer >
Mount Fuji is a classic cinder cone, built up by a stratovolcano. The mountain is notable for its symmetrical cone-shaped profile, which is characteristic of stratovolcanoes that have not erupted laterally. Oregon State University notes that Mount Fuji has erupted over 16 times.Full Answer >
To build a composite volcano, get a cookie sheet, cardboard box, newspaper, brown paint, glue, tissue, baking soda, vinegar, dish washing liquid, a plastic bottle, modeling clay, red food coloring and glitter. Work on a large surface that is easy to clean.Full Answer >
To make a composite volcano, mix vinegar and baking soda together to create a mock eruption. The base in the form of baking soda neutralizes the acid in the vinegar and produces carbon dioxide gas, which causes the mixture to bubble and rise.Full Answer >