Water expands by a factor of 112, or roughly 9 percent, when it freezes. Water, unlike most other liquids, forms stronger hydrogen bonds as temperatures drop. This leads to a crystal lattice structure with voids left between molecules. As the molecules arrange themselves in this manner, the substance expands and becomes less dense.Know More
Water molecules normally slide passed one another fluidly and easily, but when the temperature drops to below freezing, the two hydrogen atoms align with their neighbors. This alignment eventually becomes a rigid, crystal structure, leaving openings between the molecules. These open areas are where the overall volume of the substance has increased, or expanded, by approximately 9 percent, which is why ice floats on water and does not sink.
If water did not expand when frozen, Earth would be a different place. If water contracted when frozen, it would be more dense than the surrounding water and sink. This would leave ice submerged and out of reach of sunlight, while freezing fish and animals living at or near the bottom. The submerged ice would also slowly cool the planet, leading to a cold and inhospitable environment for life as it is known today, particularly so for human life.Learn more about States of Matter
The hydrogen bonding gives water a structure with considerable space between the molecules, making it expand in size and become less dense in a solid state than in a liquid one. Because water is denser than ice, ice cubes float on the surface of water. Hydrogen bonds link each water molecule to an average of 3.4 other water molecules, and the lattice that forms when water freezes has a lot of empty space inside it.Full Answer >
An increase in atmospheric pressure raises the boiling point of a liquid by raising the vapor pressure of the water above the liquid. This increases the amount of thermal energy needed to increase the vapor pressure of the water to match, raising the boiling point. Conversely, a reduction in atmospheric pressure, such as that caused by an increase in altitude, lowers the boiling point proportionately.Full Answer >
The boiling point of isopropyl alcohol is 180.5 F, or 82.5 C. Isopropyl is primarily created by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction, but it can also be produced by hydrogenating acetone. Isopropyl alcohol is colorless and flammable, and it has a strong odor.Full Answer >
Mercury, the only metal that remains liquid at room temperature, is more than 13 times denser than water. One way of comparing densities of liquids is by combining them to determine which floats on top of the other. However, some liquids dissolve in water, making this method unreliable. Creosote and sulfuric acid are both denser than water, but sulfuric acid is an aqueous solution that mixes with water.Full Answer >