Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extremely small distances. Unlike the electrical force, the nuclear force reduces extremely quickly with distance, dropping to zero before it interacts with the atom's own electrons.Know More
Opposite electrical charges attract each other, and like charges repel each other with the electric force. In every element but hydrogen, this force is present within the nucleus. Every element except hydrogen has more than one proton, and each proton has an identical positive charge. This produces an electric force pushing the protons apart. If some force did not counter the electric force, all atomic nuclei would dissipate, leaving hydrogen as the only element in existence.
Nuclear forces also hold neutrons, particles with a similar mass to protons, within the nucleus. Every element but hydrogen has neutrons in its nucleus. The number of neutrons is somewhat variable, with each different number of neutrons in a nucleus representing a different isotope of that element. There are hydrogen isotopes that possess neutrons, but they are much less common than the standard isotope without neutrons. The nuclear force is not always powerful enough to hold certain isotopes together, which results in a radioactive isotope.Learn more about Particle Physics
According to the World Nuclear Association, as of April 2014, 31 countries derive some of their electrical power from nuclear energy. Furthermore, 56 countries have nuclear reactors dedicated to scientific research. All total there are 430 commercial power-generating nuclear plants, 240 research reactors and 180 nuclear power plants providing electricity for ships at sea.Full Answer >
A nuclear chain reaction is a series of fission reactions wherein the products become the driving forces for further chain reactions. This type of reaction generates constructive forces in the form of usable energy and destructive forces in the form of an explosion.Full Answer >
The societal effects of an electromagnetic pulse blast resulting from a nuclear detonation are devastating and can include a complete loss of power over a large range, such as an entire city or more. Almost all unshielded electronic equipment would instantly cease functioning in such an event. Power lines would fry, causing the collapse of the power grid and all utilities associated with it.Full Answer >
Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Friedrich George "Fritz" Houtermans first discovered the origins of nuclear fusion in 1929. They are credited with discovering that the fusing of nuclei creates energy by following Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.Full Answer >