The opposite of vaporization is called condensation. Vaporization is a change of state in which a substance goes from liquid to gas, while condensation is when a substance goes from gas to liquid.
Substances can change states due to changes in temperature or pressure. Typically, substances change from one level of energy to the next closest one, such as from water to gas.
However, there are some exceptions that skip the middle energy state. For example, sublimation (solid to gas) usually occurs when dry ice is exposed to room temperature air. Changes in state are driven by changes in average molecular energy.
Gases have the most energy, while liquids are in the middle and solids have the least.Learn More
The heat of vaporization is the amount of energy that is required to convert a substance from liquid to gaseous state without changing its temperature. A substance with a high heat of evaporation takes longer to transform between the two states.Full Answer >
A crystalline substance is a substance where the molecules, atoms or ions that compose it are in an extremely regular pattern in three dimensions. This regular pattern is called the crystal's lattice. Whether a substance solidifies as a crystal often depends on the way in which it forms, not its chemical components.Full Answer >
Mercury, the only metal that remains liquid at room temperature, is more than 13 times denser than water. One way of comparing densities of liquids is by combining them to determine which floats on top of the other. However, some liquids dissolve in water, making this method unreliable. Creosote and sulfuric acid are both denser than water, but sulfuric acid is an aqueous solution that mixes with water.Full Answer >
Helium naturally occurs in a gaseous state. It is the only element whose liquid state cannot be solidified by reducing its temperature. It retains its liquid state until absolute zero and can only be solidified by increasing the pressure.Full Answer >