The parts of the mushroom are the cap, gills or pores, spores, stem, ring, volva, mycelium and hypha. The mushroom can be divided into underground and aboveground sections.Know More
The cap of the mushroom is the topmost part. It can be conical, flat or spherical and have a variety of textures depending on the type of mushroom and stage of development. Its function is to protect the gills, which are found on the underside of the cap and composed of thin, paper-like layers stacked side by side. Some mushrooms have pores instead of gills. These are tiny tubes packed tightly together that resemble a sponge. The gills and pores produce spores, the reproducing element of the mushroom.
The stem of the mushroom supports the cap and may not be present in certain types. The ring of the mushroom is found on the upper portion of the stem and is a remnant of a protective covering for the gills that ruptured as the cap grew. At the base of the stem is a similar remnant covering that once protected the entire mushroom. The underground portion of the mushroom is the mycelium. At its very bottom, it has hypha, which are root-like white filaments that collect water and organic matter for the mushroom.Learn more about Biology
In certain types of marine animals, such as starfish and sea urchins, water allows the creature to maintain control and movement over the many different tube feet that live in its ambulacral grooves. To do this, the water vascular system is composed primarily of complex canals and reservoirs that are filled with fluid. These canals and reservoirs contribute to the organisms' ability to move, exchange gases and perform other functions.Full Answer >
Nonliving parts of an ecosystem are called abiotic components or abiotic factors. These include parts of the ecosystem that are non-living but still affect it. Examples include water, soil, air, temperature and sunlight.Full Answer >
The two main parts of the nervous system are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the spinal cord and the brain, which contains 100 billion nerve cells. The peripheral nervous system is broken down into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.Full Answer >
"Cap and trade" refers to a system in which a market-based approach is used to implement restrictions on the emissions of greenhouse gases. As a policy tool, it seeks to protect the environment by creating a market in which emission allowances can be bought and sold.Full Answer >