Petrification is the process of turning plant material into stone. This is done by infiltration with water that carries mineral particles. The original shape of the item remains unchanged after the process.Know More
The petrification of wood is a common example of this process. In 1906, George Weber Wieland presented a theory proposing that wood petrification is based on five factors. Those factors include the tissue systems of the plant, temperature, minerals needed for silification or calcification, the duration of the chemical activity, and the nature of the embedding rock material.
The time it takes for petrification to occur varies depending on the minerals used. In general, the process takes a few hundred years to complete.Learn more about Geology
Igneous rocks are formed when melted lava or magma cools and crystallizes, and their unique traits are based on this process. They are strong because their mineral grains grow together tightly as they cool, and their minerals are usually black, white, or gray. They have a texture similar to something baked in an oven, like black bread or peanut brittle.Full Answer >
Because platinum is so rare, it must be extracted after being mined through a process that involves crushing it into incredibly small particles and separating these particles from one another. This is known as the flotation separation method, and produces a frothy layer of particles that can be skimmed to provide the extracted platinum. This process is necessary because platinum, even in ore, needs to be removed from other substances.Full Answer >
Metamorphic rock is formed underground through a process that changes a rock's molecular structure due to pressure, heat and chemical reactions. A metamorphic rock forms from a parent rock called a protolith. Depending on conditions, a protolith can transform into any metamorphic rock. Because protoliths are capable of undergoing vast changes, identifying them is sometimes difficult for geologists.Full Answer >
Lithification is the process by which sediment turns into hardened rock. There are three ways in which lithification can occur. These processes are called compaction, recrystallization and cementation.Full Answer >